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Ruphus

Posts: 3782
Joined: Nov. 18 2010
 

Study analyzes Secret of Musical Ple... 

In search of the next chord: Scientists reveal a secret to great songwriting

AFP-JIJI

Nov 8, 2019
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WASHINGTON – What makes some music so enjoyable, and can science help us engineer the perfect pop song?

A group of researchers who statistically analyzed tens of thousands of chord progressions in classic U.S. Billboard hits say they have found the answer, and it lies in the right combination of uncertainty and surprise.

Vincent Cheung of the Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Science in Germany, who led the study, said the data could even assist songwriters trying to craft the next chart-topper.

“It is fascinating that humans can derive pleasure from a piece of music just by how sounds are ordered over time,” he said.

Composers know intuitively that expectancy plays a big part in how much pleasure we derive from music, but the exact relationship has remained hazy.

Writing in the journal Current Biology on Thursday, Cheung and co-authors selected 745 classic pop songs from 1958 and 1991, including “Ob-La-Di, Ob-La-Da” by The Beatles, UB40’s “Red Red Wine” and ABBA’s “Knowing Me, Knowing You.”

They then used a machine-learning model to mathematically quantify the level of uncertainty and surprise of 80,000 chord progressions relative to one another, and played a small selection to around 80 human test subjects connected to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) brain scanners.

The scientists found that when the test subjects were relatively certain about what chord to expect next, they found it pleasant when they were instead surprised. Conversely, when individuals were uncertain about what to expect next, they found it pleasurable when subsequent chords weren’t surprising.

Musical pleasure itself was reflected in the brain’s amygdala, hippocampus and auditory cortex — regions associated with processing emotions, learning and memory, and processing sound.

Contrary to previous research, the team found that the nucleus accumbens — a region that processes reward expectations and had been thought to play a role in musical pleasure — only reflected uncertainty.

Cheung and colleagues decided to strip the music down to just chords because lyrics and melody might remind listeners of associations attached to songs, and so contaminate the experiment.

But, he added, the technique could equally be applied to investigate melodies, and he is also interested in understanding whether the findings remain similar for other genres like jazz and for non-Western musical traditions such as those from China and Africa.

Nor does future research need to be confined to music: “When we look at somebody doing a very cool dance move, that’s also linked to expectancy,” said Cheung, as is joke-telling.

The study falls broadly into the relatively new field of computational musicology, which sits at the intersection of science and art.

So could data help unlock the magic formula for songwriting?

“It is an important feature that could be exploited but it wouldn’t be the only thing that could be used to create a pop song,” said Cheung, cautioning that the work looked at pleasurable chord progressions in isolation.

As for the study, the team found the three highest-rated chord progressions they played to test subjects appeared in “Invisible Touch” by the 1980s English band Genesis, the 1968 hit “Hooked On A Feeling” by B.J. Thomas and “Ob-La-Di, Ob-La-Da.”

https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2019/11/08/asia-pacific/science-health-asia-pacific/music-numbers-scientists-reveal-secret-great-songwriting/

or

https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=6&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=2ahUKEwj9gIfMnOTlAhXIYVAKHRjsCtYQFjAFegQIARAB&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.thetimes.co.uk%2Farticle%2Fthe-beatles-element-of-surprise-strikes-chord-max-planck-institute-finds-606xz7b75&usg=AOvVaw2zI-5m3rWpnqr0t6379zHp
  REPORT THIS POST AS INAPPROPRIATE |  Date Nov. 12 2019 8:18:20
 
Piwin

Posts: 3403
Joined: Feb. 9 2016
 

RE: Study analyzes Secret of Musical... (in reply to Ruphus

For the nerds on here who will actually read the paper (I'm looking at you kitarist ):
https://www.cell.com/current-biology/fulltext/S0960-9822(19)31258-8#secsectitle0145

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"Anything you do can be fixed. What you cannot fix is the perfection of a blank page. What you cannot fix is that pristine, unsullied whiteness of a screen or a page with nothing on it—because there’s nothing there to fix."
  REPORT THIS POST AS INAPPROPRIATE |  Date Nov. 12 2019 9:34:04
 
orsonw

Posts: 1567
Joined: Jul. 4 2009
From: London

RE: Study analyzes Secret of Musical... (in reply to Piwin

This is another study suggesting the predictive processing theory of cognition.

Active music participation is 'serious play' involving the embodied, embedded, enactive, and extended cognitive ‘machinery’ that shapes the individual with the environment. There is evidence suggesting that the 'playing' of active music involvement may improve the 'machinery' when cognition is applied in other ways.



https://www.mindcoolness.com/blog/bayesian-brain-predictive-processing/



Front Psychol. 2019 Jul 30;10:1704. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01704. eCollection 2019.
On the Association Between Musical Training, Intelligence and Executive Functions in Adulthood.
Criscuolo A1, Bonetti L2, Särkämö T3, Kliuchko M2, Brattico E2.
https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01704/full
  REPORT THIS POST AS INAPPROPRIATE |  Date Nov. 12 2019 11:25:52
 
kitarist

Posts: 1488
Joined: Dec. 4 2012
 

RE: Study analyzes Secret of Musical... (in reply to Piwin

quote:

For the nerds on here who will actually read the paper (I'm looking at you kitarist )


Thank you! (No - YOU are a NERD!) And yes, I read it

Wouldn't the specific results of the study depend on the musical exposure and culture of the listener - and these would vary across population and across time for a single person? So I think the music journalist (as opposed to the actual researchers) is gong too far by drawing conclusions about finding a magic formula for songwriting; it is a constantly moving target.

I think the main finding is useful, though, if just common sense - they are saying that humans like to be surprised a little when they are in a very predictable musical space, and also like to find recognizable 'landmarks' when in a very unpredictable musical space.

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Konstantin
  REPORT THIS POST AS INAPPROPRIATE |  Date Nov. 12 2019 18:42:31
 
Piwin

Posts: 3403
Joined: Feb. 9 2016
 

RE: Study analyzes Secret of Musical... (in reply to kitarist

quote:

No - YOU are a NERD!) And yes, I read it




_____________________________

"Anything you do can be fixed. What you cannot fix is the perfection of a blank page. What you cannot fix is that pristine, unsullied whiteness of a screen or a page with nothing on it—because there’s nothing there to fix."
  REPORT THIS POST AS INAPPROPRIATE |  Date Nov. 13 2019 7:11:33
 
Ricardo

Posts: 13404
Joined: Dec. 14 2004
From: Washington DC

RE: Study analyzes Secret of Musical... (in reply to Ruphus

I’ve done my own study, and it seems that the malagueña mellizo Chico is more pleasing than the malagueña mellizo doble, as the objective study using the same lyrics clearly proves:

Doble:


Chico:


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CD's and transcriptions available here:
www.ricardomarlow.com
  REPORT THIS POST AS INAPPROPRIATE |  Date Nov. 14 2019 6:05:19
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